President and Chief Executive OfficerDr. Raphael W. Bostic is president and chief executive officer of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta. He is a participant on the Federal Open Market Committee, the monetary policymaking body of the Federal Reserve System.
Message from the President
A Moral and Economic Imperative to End Racism
By Raphael Bostic, President and CEO
As I have observed the protests against police brutality over the past few weeks, I have shared in the outrage of the truly horrific events that brought us to this point. I know many of you are feeling shocked and outraged. My first thoughts are for those who lost their lives and those suffering through these events in very real ways, and I stand with all those peacefully protesting for change.
These events are yet another reminder that many of our fellow citizens endure the burden of unjust, exploitative, and abusive treatment by institutions in this country. Over the course of American history, the examples of such institutionalized racism are many, and include slavery, federal law (consider the Three-Fifths Compromise our founding fathers established to determine federal representation), sanctioned intimidation during Reconstruction, Jim Crow laws in southern states, redlining by bankers and brokers, segregation, voter suppression, and racial profiling in policing.
These institutions hurt not only the African Americans they've targeted, but the systemic racism they've codified also hurt, and continues to hurt, America and its economy. By limiting economic and educational opportunities for a large number of Americans, institutionalized racism constrains this country's economic potential. The economic contributions of these Americans, in the form of work product and innovation, will be less than they otherwise could have been. Systemic racism is a yoke that drags on the American economy.
This country has both a moral and economic imperative to end these unjust and destructive practices.
To be fair, we have made some progress. Legal reforms have erased many of those historical institutions that caused so much pain and violence, and further reform essential for helping end harmful practices is under way in many places. But the legacies of these institutions remain, and we continue to experience misguided bias and prejudices that stem from these stains on our history. These have manifested in the worst way possible—in the deaths of George Floyd, Breonna Taylor, Ahmaud Arbery, Dana Martin, and, sadly, so many others.
It is time for this cycle to stop. It is time for us to collectively embrace the promise of an inclusive America, one where everyone can participate fully. We are each being challenged to rise to this occasion through education and action. All of us, especially our white allies, must learn the history of systemic racism and the ways it continues to manifest in our lives today. Furthermore, we all must reflect on what we can do to effect change at every turn.
A commitment to an inclusive society also means a commitment to an inclusive economy. Such an economy would represent a rebuke of systemic racism and other exclusionary structures. It would represent a true embrace of the principles that all are created equal and should enjoy unburdened life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
I believe the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, and the Federal Reserve more generally, can play an important role in helping to reduce racial inequities and bring about a more inclusive economy.
We can do this, first, by fulfilling the mission given to us, which is to promote the health of the U.S. economy and the stability of the U.S. financial system. Through our monetary policy decisions, our role as a supervisor and regulator of banks, our support of the payments system, and our commitment to community and economic development, the Federal Reserve acts to create a foundation upon which businesses, families, and communities can thrive. Our success means that businesses can grow faster and hire more workers and that more innovation can be supported, which would mean more opportunities for African Americans and others who have not been as attached to the economy. A recent example of this promise is our decisive response to the pandemic in an effort to reduce the distress and pain of many markets and help preserve jobs.
The second way the Atlanta Fed can contribute to a more inclusive economy lies in the foundation of promoting maximum employment, by addressing the economic inequality that persists in this country. We have the ability and the responsibility to link economic mobility and resilience to broader economic health and to raise awareness among stakeholders who may not be fully attuned to the consequences of an inequitable economy. Our work on this disparity has been going on for some time, but its urgency and importance have been renewed as the economic inequality adds fuel to the underlying oppression that is now driving the protesters.
Finally, the Atlanta Fed is committed to modeling economic inclusion, and that starts with our own organization. We embrace diversity and inclusion as essential to who we are. The Bank's values—integrity, excellence, and respect—support our sincere belief that every employee is an important part of the Atlanta Fed's story and success. We have a longstanding commitment to seeing that all of our staff are treated fairly and respectfully and that their career opportunities are not limited by any bias. Recently, I have urged the Atlanta Fed to look even deeper at its own practices. Our staff have identified a number of policy changes that will further increase inclusion. Our aim is to demonstrate, in all of our actions, the simple truth that we will reach our greatest potential only by fully drawing on the talent, expertise, and perspectives of diverse staff and external stakeholders.
What we are witnessing in the protests is inspiring all of us to step up, and the Atlanta Fed stands by those fighting for equality in every form. I feel the weight of those afflicted by the hateful bias and prejudices that have no place in our society. My colleagues and I are committed to listening to and learning from all people within the Sixth District so we can best fulfill our mission. As the nation moves forward, the economy must work for all Americans, and we at the Atlanta Fed are committed to helping our economy get there.
Dr. Raphael W. Bostic took office June 5, 2017, as the 15th president and chief executive officer of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta. He is responsible for all the Bank's activities, including monetary policy, bank supervision and regulation, and payment services. He serves on the Federal Open Market Committee, the monetary policymaking body of the Federal Reserve System.
From 2012 to 2017, Bostic was the Judith and John Bedrosian Chair in Governance and the Public Enterprise at the Sol Price School of Public Policy at the University of Southern California (USC).
He arrived at USC in 2001 and served as a professor in the School of Policy, Planning, and Development. His research has spanned many fields, including home ownership, housing finance, neighborhood change, and the role of institutions in shaping policy effectiveness. He was director of USC's master of real estate development degree program and was the founding director of the Casden Real Estate Economics Forecast.
Bostic also served USC's Lusk Center for Real Estate as the interim associate director from 2007 to 2009 and as the interim director from 2015 to 2016. From 2016 to 2017, he was the chair of the center's Governance, Management, and Policy Process Department.
From 2009 to 2012, Bostic was the assistant secretary for policy development and research at the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). In that role, he was a principal adviser to the secretary on policy and research, helping the secretary and other principal staff make informed decisions on HUD policies and programs, as well as on budget and legislative proposals.
Bostic worked at the Federal Reserve Board of Governors from 1995 to 2001, first as an economist and then as a senior economist in the monetary and financial studies section, where his work on the Community Reinvestment Act earned him a special achievement award.
He serves on many boards and advisory committees, including the Advisory Committee on Economic Inclusion at the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Georgia's Partnership for Inclusive Innovation, and the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. He is also a member of Harvard University's Board of Overseers. He is serving as the 2021–22 chair of the board of directors of the United Way of Greater Atlanta and is the 2022 chair-elect for the Metro Atlanta Chamber of Commerce.
Bostic graduated from Harvard University in 1987 with a combined major in economics and psychology. He earned his doctorate in economics from Stanford University in 1995.
The Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta serves the Sixth Federal Reserve District, which covers Alabama, Florida, and Georgia, and parts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee. The Bank has branches in Birmingham, Jacksonville, Miami, Nashville, and New Orleans.Updated July 13, 2021
Bostic, Raphael W. April 18, 2020. "Opinion: Fed's Working to Aid Economy, Post-Pandemic Recovery." Atlanta Journal-Constitution.
Bostic, R. and Johnson, M. January 15, 2020. "BankThink: How to keep community banks thriving." American Banker.
Boarnet, M. G.; Bostic, R. W.; Rodnyansky, S.; Burinskiy, E.; Eisenlohr, A.; Jamme, H.; and Santiago-Bartolomei, R. 2020. "Do High Income Households Reduce Driving More When Living near Rail Transit?" Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 80.
Bostic, R. W.; Jakabovics, A.; Voith, R.; and Zielenbach, S. 2019. "Mixed-Income LIHTC Developments in Chicago: A First Look at Their Income Characteristics and Spillover Impacts." In What Works to Promote Inclusive, Equitable Mixed-Income Communities, edited by Mark L. Joseph and Amy T. Khare, cluster #1, section A, no. 6.
Boarnet, M. G.; Bostic, R. W.; Burinskiy, E.; Rodnyansky, S.; and Prohofsky, A. 2018. "Gentrification near Rail Transit Areas: A Micro-Data Analysis of Moves into Los Angeles Metro Rail Station Areas." Research Reports, University of California National Center for Sustainable Transportation.
Bostic, R. W. and Molaison, D. Forthcoming. "Hurricane Katrina: Devastation, Possibilities and Prospects." In Economic and Risk Assessment of Hurricane Katrina, University of Southern California Center for Risk and Economic Analysis of Terrorism Events.
Bostic, R.; Kim, A.; and Valenzuela, A. 2016. "An Introduction to the Special Issue: Contesting the Streets 2: Vending and Public Space in Global Cities." Cityscape 18(1): 3–10.
Bostic, R. W. and Ellen, I. G. 2014. "Introduction: Special Issue on Housing Policy in the United States." Journal of Housing Economics 24: 1–3.
Bostic, R. 2014. "CDBG at 40: Opportunities and Obstacles." Housing Policy Debate 24(1): 297–302. doi:10.1080/10511482.2013.866973.
Bostic, R. W. 2014. "Resilient Economic Development: Challenges and Opportunities." In University of Illinois Chicago Urban Forum, edited by M. Pagano. University of Illinois Press.
Bostic, R. W. and McFarlane, A. 2013. "The Proposed Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing Regulatory Impact Analysis." Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research 15(3): 257.
Bostic, R. W.; Thornton, R. L.; Rudd, E. C.; and Sternthal, M. J. 2012. "Health in All Policies: The Role of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and Present and Future Challenges." Health Affairs 31(9): online.
Graddy, E., with Bostic, R. W. 2010. "The Role of Private Agents in Affordable Housing Policy." Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 20, special issue: 81–99.
Bostic, R.; Gabriel, S.; and Painter, G. 2009. "Housing Wealth, Financial Wealth, and Consumption: New Evidence from Micro Data." Regional Science and Urban Economics 39(1): 79–89.
Bostic, R. W., with Engel, K.; McCoy, P.; A. Pennington-Cross; and Wachter, S. 2008. "State and Local Anti-Predatory Lending Laws: The Effect of Legal Enforcement Mechanisms." Journal of Economics and Business 60(1–2): 47–66.
An, X. and Bostic, R. W. 2008. "GSE Activity, FHA Feedback, and Implications for the Efficacy of the Affordable Housing Goals." Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics 36(2): 207–31.
An, X.; Bostic, R. W.; Deng, Y.; and Gabriel, S. 2007. "GSE Loan Purchases, the FHA, and Housing Outcomes in Targeted, Low-Income Neighborhoods." In Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs, edited by G. Burtless and J.R. Pack. Brookings Institute Press.
Sloane, D. C., with Bostic, R. W. and Lewis, L. B. 2007. "The Neighborhood Dynamics of Hospitals as Land Owners." Lincoln Land Institute publication.
Bostic, R. W., with Longhofer, S. D. and Redfearn, C. 2007. "Land Leverage: Decomposing Home Price Dynamics." Real Estate Economics 35 (2): 183–208.
Bostic, R. W. and Prohofsky, A. 2006. "Enterprise Zones and Individual Welfare: A Case Study of California." Journal of Regional Science 46 (2): 175–203.
Bostic, R. W. and Gabriel, S. A. 2006. "Do the GSEs Matter to Low-Income Housing Markets? An Assessment of the Effects of GSE Loan Purchase Activity on California Housing Outcomes." Journal of Urban Economics 59: 458–75.
Black, H.; Bostic, R. W.; Robinson, B.; and Schweitzer, R. 2005. "Do CRA-Related Events Affect Shareholder Wealth? The Case of Bank Mergers." The Financial Review 40(4): 575–86.
Bostic, R. W. with Robinson, B. 2004. "Community Banking and Mortgage Credit Availability: The Impact of CRA Agreements." Journal of Banking and Finance 28: 3069–95.
Bostic, R. W., with Calem. P. S. and Wachter, S. M. 2004. "Hitting the Wall: Credit as an Impediment to Homeownership." In Building Assets, Building Credit: Creating Wealth in Low-Income Communities, edited by N. Retsinas and E. Belsky. Joint Center for Housing Studies and Brookings Institution Press.
Bostic, R. W., with Redfearn, C. 2004. "Book Review [The Color of Credit: Mortgage Discrimination, Research Methodology and Fair Lending Enforcement, by Stephen L. Ross and John Yinger]." Journal of Regional Science 44(1):162–65.
Bostic, R. W., with Aaronson, D.; Huck, P.; and Townsend, R. 2004. "Supplier Relationships and Small Business Use of Trade Credit." Journal of Urban Economics 55(1): 46–67.
Bostic, R. W., with Barakova, I.; Calem, P.; and Wachter, S. 2003. "Does Credit Quality Matter for Homeownership?" Journal of Housing Economics 12(4): 318–36.
Bostic, R. W. 2003. "A Test of Cultural Affinity in Home Mortgage Lending." Journal of Financial Services Research 23(2): 89–112.
Bostic, R., with Robinson, B. 2003. "Do CRA Agreements Increase Lending?" Real Estate Economics 31(1): 23–51.
Bostic, R. W., with Calem, P. S. 2003. "Privacy Restrictions and the Use of Data at Credit Repositories." In Credit Reporting Systems and the International Economy, edited by Margaret J. Miller. Boston: MIT Press.
Bostic, R. W., with Martin, R. 2003. "Black Homeowners as Gentrifying Force? Neighborhood Dynamics in the Context of Minority Homeownership." Urban Studies 40(12).
Bostic, R. W. 2002. "Equal Access to Credit." In 25 Years of Credit Research, edited by Mike Staten. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Bostic, R., with Canner, G. B. 2000. "Consolidation in Banking: How Recent Changes Have Affected the Provision of Banking Services." The Neighborworks Journal.
Bostic, R., with Avery, R. B. and Canner, G. B. 2000. "Highlights of a Survey of the Performance and Profitability of CRA-Related Lending." Housing America Update.
Bostic, R., with Avery, R. B. and Canner, G. B. 2000. "CRA Special Lending Programs." Federal Reserve Bulletin 86: 711–31.
Bostic, R., with Avery, R. B.; Calem, P. S.; and Canner, G. B. 2000. "Credit Scoring: Statistical Issues and Evidence from Credit Bureau Files." Real Estate Economics 28: 523–47.
Bostic, R., with Canner, G. B. 1998. "New Information on Small Business and Small Farm Lending: The 1996 CRA Data." Federal Reserve Bulletin 84(1): 1–21.Bostic, R., with Avery, R. B. and Samolyk, K. A. 1998. "The Role of Personal Wealth in Small Business Finance." Journal of Banking and Finance 22: 1019–61
Other Fed Work
Bostic, R.; Bower, S.; Shy, O.; Wall, L.; and Washington, J. September 2020. "Digital Payments and the Path to Financial Inclusion." Promoting Safer Payments Innovation Series no. 20-1.
Raphael Bostic. "Quantitative Frightening?," macroblog. January 16, 2019.
Raphael Bostic. "What Does the Current Slope of the Yield Curve Tell Us?," macroblog. August 23, 2018.
Raphael Bostic. "Thoughts on a Long-Run Monetary Policy Framework" macroblog series:
"Framing the Question." March 26, 2018.
"Part 2: The Principle of Bounded Nominal Uncertainty." March 27, 2018.
"Part 3: An Example of Flexible Price-Level Targeting." March 28, 2018.
"Part 4: Flexible Price-Level Targeting in the Big Picture." April 2, 2018.
Raphael Bostic. "A Big-Picture Look at the Economy. " ECONversations. February 21, 2018.
Economy Matters Podcast Episodes
Raphael Bostic (interviewer) and Anthony Orlando. "'These Local Problems Do Have Some National Solutions': A Conversation about Inequality." February 27, 2020.
Raphael Bostic (interviewer) and James Fallows. "Wings over America: A Conversation with Author James Fallows." . January 2, 2020.
Raphael Bostic (interviewer) and Alessandro Acquisti. "Speaking Publicly on Privacy: A Conversation about Digital Privacy." April 2, 2019.
Raphael Bostic (interviewer) and Jerome Adams. "Health Is Wealth": A Conversation with the U.S. Surgeon General." January 3, 2019.
Raphael Bostic (interviewer) and Raj Chetty. "'A Kid Should Have a Fair Shot': A Discussion of Economic Mobility." October 22, 2018.
Raphael Bostic (interviewer) and David Lusk. "'It's a Really Dramatic Change': A Discussion of the Economics of Food." October 12, 2018.
Raphael Bostic. "'It's a Special Job': A Conversation with Atlanta Fed President Raphael Bostic." April 27, 2018.