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Take On Payments, a blog sponsored by the Retail Payments Risk Forum of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, is intended to foster dialogue on emerging risks in retail payment systems and enhance collaborative efforts to improve risk detection and mitigation. We encourage your active participation in Take on Payments and look forward to collaborating with you.

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April 25, 2022

Leaders Discuss CBDC Research Project

Please note that because of a scheduling conflict with one of our guest presenters, we’ve rescheduled the webinar and updated this post. The webinar is taking place on June 9.

What might a central bank digital currency (CBDC) look like? And how would it work? While the Federal Reserve Board of Governors has not expressed any intention to launch a CBDC, it issued a white paperOff-site link in January this year to kick off a discussion about it with payment stakeholders. The Board is asking for input by May 20.

Last August, before the release of the white paper, the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Digital Currency Initiative announced they were partnering to study the implications of a CBDC. Calling their collaborative effort "Project Hamilton," they describe it as a "multiyear research project to explore the CBDC design space and gain a hands-on understanding of a CBDC's technical challenges and opportunities." They issued a Phase I reportOff-site link this past February.

In the next episode of our Talk About Payments webinar series on June 9, two Boston Fed senior leaders on the Project Hamilton team will provide a detailed overview and current status of the project. Jim Cunha is executive vice president and interim chief operating officer leading the Boston Fed's research effort in central bank digital currency technology. Bob Bench is an assistant vice president in the Boston Fed's payment strategies group. Dave Lott, Atlanta Fed payments risk expert, will moderate the discussion.

We encourage financial institutions, retailers, payments processors, law enforcement officials, academics, and other payments system stakeholders to participate. As always, we're allotting time for participant questions. Please pass this invitation along to any colleagues you believe will be interested in attending.

So, please join us for our webinar on June 9 from 1 to 2 p.m. (ET). The webinar is free and open to the public. However, you must registerOff-site link. We'll send you login information after you register. If you cannot attend the live event, a recording of the webinar will be posted the week after the event.

If you'd like to view previous webinars, go to our Talk About Payments webinars page.

We hope to see you on June 9!

April 18, 2022

Smishing: Phishing with a Different Bait

The Retail Payments Risk Forum team is always on the lookout for changes in attack patterns by the criminal element regarding payments. Our sources of research include industry news, networking with payments stakeholders, third-party reports, and our internal security warnings. One other source we have is our own personal experience, though we have to remind ourselves of our colleague Claire Greene's warning that each of us is a sample of one. What we experience may not be, and probably isn't, what the average person might encounter.

I was recently reminded of this warning with regard to my own experience with smishing attacks. Unlike phishing, which uses email, smishing uses SMS text messages to entice you to click on a malicious link that either loads malware on your phone or, more likely, directs you to a fake website to capture your login information. (Simply opening the text message poses little risk.) Over the last several weeks, I have been getting one to two text messages a day on my phone asking me to click on a link to respond—usually to a customer satisfaction survey allegedly from a major retailer, with the offer of a gift card as a reward for responding. One message informed me that a product I had ordered (and already received) from an online retailer couldn't be shipped until I clicked on the link to pay an international tax of $2.83. I am confident that all these messages were "smishing" attempts.

Although a part of me was tempted to assume my experience was indicative of a very recent trend, I decided to research whether I was indeed average in experiencing an increased number of these attacks. It appears Claire was right—although my research showed that smishing attacks have substantially increased, seems I am fortunate to have only recently become a target. A cybersecurity firm that claims to handle 80 percent of mobile messages in North America has reportedOff-site link that the number of smishing attacks during the third quarter of 2020 had increased 328 percent over the previous quarter. The FBI's Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) doesn't separate smishing from phishing, vishing (phone calls), or pharming (redirection to a fake website) incidents, but the IC3's Internet Crime Report 2021 Adobe PDF file formatOff-site link shows that these complaints increased 34 percent from 2020 to 2021.

The warning signs for a smishing message are quite similar to those of a phishing attack and may include the following:

  • A sense of urgency, pushing you to respond right away. As we are now in income tax season, these messages may include references to past due taxes or a suspended refund.
  • An offer of a reward such as a gift card, rebate, or a coupon for a future purchase from the retailer
  • Poor English grammar or improperly formatted phone numbers
  • An unknown sender. It is best to report or delete messages you weren't expecting from people you don't know.

Be aware that what appears to be the sender's phone number is often spoofed. It may be a familiar number or at least may have a local area code. This is intended to increase your trust and thus the likelihood that you will respond.

Likewise, the protective measures you should take to protect yourself against falling victim to a smishing attempt are similar to any other safeguards you take:

  • Keep your mobile device software and browsers updated with the latest security upgrades.
  • If you are in doubt about the legitimacy of the message, do not use the link or phone number provided in the text to contact the sender. If the message appears to be from someone you know or a business you are familiar with, find their number in your contacts or online and contact them directly.

I realize that the criminals launching these types of attacks are generally using automated systems to transmit hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of the messages in hopes of getting even just a small percentage of recipients to click on the link. So even if you are like me and not average, there is a good chance you have been or are likely to be the target of a smishing attack. I hope you will use information to not become a victim, and distribute it to help keep others from falling victim.

April 11, 2022

Defending ATMs from Jackpotting

In a recent post on ATM jackpotting, I promised to follow up with some defensive tactics that could prevent, or at least deter, criminals from installing the malware that would allow them to empty an ATM. Because criminals use a variety of methods to jackpot ATMs, a multi-layered security approach is recommended since no one tactic is completely bulletproof.

The first line of defense is to make it more difficult for the criminal to gain access to the top cabinet of the ATM, which houses the operating components. This cabinet normally has an easily defeated barrel or a simple key lock mechanism. Often the same key accesses multiple machines to make it easier for service personnel. Owners should consider installing a digital lock on the cabinet since digital locks are more robust than key locks. The owners can change codes remotely and avoid the issues of lost or duplicated keys and personnel changes. Such a retrofit is not inexpensive nor a totally tamperproof enhancement, but it does create a deterrent.

A second defensive method is to encrypt the hard drive, which actually provides a double defense. First, someone would need an encryption key or security certificate to validate the hard drive before proceeding with a reboot, thus preventing the criminal from replacing the entire hard drive with one containing jackpotting malware. Second, even if the criminal were to remove the hard drive, the encryption would make it extremely difficult for the criminal to reverse-engineer the ATM software or to obtain usable data stored on the drive.

A third tactic is to encode a list of software applications or executable files that can be present and active in the ATM. The primary objective is to protect the ATM from the installation of potentially harmful applications.

A fourth defense is to block the operating system from recognizing an ATM's USB connection ports. This tactic presents some challenges because service technicians often need to connect their diagnostic equipment to a USB port. While the experienced criminal can circumvent this measure, it is still a deterrent to the opportunistic criminal.

Finally, as with all computerized devices, ATM owners should always install software updates and patches as soon as possible since they often address known security vulnerabilities. Likewise, owners should change factory-set passwords for software immediately upon installation of the software. Owners should place surveillance cameras, if they use them, to get good viewing angles of people at the front and rear of the machine. They should monitor access control to determine whether an ATM cabinet has been opened because of a legitimate service need.

I hope these two posts on ATM jackpotting have offered a better understanding of the risks of ATM jackpotting and the steps operators can take to minimize the risk of successful attacks. As always, your comments are welcome.

April 4, 2022

The Fed Goes to School

A primary mission of the Retail Payments Risk Forum (RPRF) is to educate the payments industry on the financial, operational, compliance, and reputational risks of payment methods and channels. We seek to accomplish this outreach mission not only through this weekly blog but also through webinars, papers, and presentations at payments conferences and industry group meetings. But as Fox Mulder of the X Files always said, "We are not alone out there." The Atlanta Fed and other Federal Reserve Banks as well as the system-wide Federal Reserve Education (FRE) group make many efforts to improve financial literacy.

The Education Outreach group within the Atlanta Fed's Public Affairs Department offers a vast number of educational outreach programs including:

  • Professional development training and credentialing for K-12 grade teachers in the Sixth District on financial literacy
  • Development and updates for a personal finance curriculum with supplemental infographic posters and lesson/activity books
  • Delivery of career-day programs for high school students as well as teaching job interview skills and holding mock job interviews
  • Advice to state education departments of the states in the Sixth District on their personal finance standards
  • Partnering with the St. Louis Fed to conduct a Native American financial literacy initiative

The efforts don't go unnoticed. The Federal Reserve Banks of Atlanta and St. Louis received the Institute for Financial Literacy's 2021 EIFLE Award–Children's Education Program of the Year for their development of a personal finance curriculum and corresponding training program for more than 200 high school teachers in Mississippi as part of a collaboration with the Mississippi Council on Economic Education.

The Atlanta and St. Louis Feds are not the only Federal Reserve Banks in their education outreach efforts. The Richmond Fed recently developed and released an interactive training course video fileOff-site link called Payments 101 that covers the history of payments and the role of the Federal Reserve. Of course, financial literacy is more than just payments. The Federal Reserve offers many programs on personal finance training on the responsible use of credit, budgeting, and economic decision-making as well.

At the start, I mentioned the RPRF's various outreach efforts. But our education efforts go both ways. My colleagues and I are constantly reading industry publications and blogs from other payments geeks, attending conference sessions, meeting with vendors, and having one-on-one conversations with payments stakeholders to learn about the latest trends and tools. And, of course, we depend on your interaction to learn what's going on in the industry and always welcome your comments.